This lecture course considered the history and theory of architectural visualization throughout the twentieth century across a variety of cultural contexts. The approach was thematically chronological. Key episodes in the development of international modernism and its aftermath were presented and analyzed with respect to the construction of architectural knowledge, interactions between drawing and building, the circulation of ideas and imagery and globalization. The course bridged between the history and theory of modern architecture, the history of technology and theories and practices of visualization. Though formally a history and theory lecture, the course therefore brought together concerns shared among different aspects of the GSAPP architecture curriculum, including visual studies, the technology sequence and the design studios. A further goal of the course was to introduce students to the material infrastructures and interfaces through which architectural discourse and techniques move across a variety of national, cultural, and geographic boundaries, both historically and in the present. The history of architectural visualization in the twentieth century is also a history of globalization. Problems and effects of visual translation, standardization, reproduction, transformation, site and circulation were therefore emphasized.